Learning Curve: Lessons from the Tutoring Revolution in Public Education

By Liz Cohen
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Education, By the Numbers

FutureEd Index

Arizona ESA Cost

  • $587 million

    Estimated total cost of Arizona's universal ESA program, 2022-23

  • $189 million

    Total cost of the targeted ESA program prior to universal expansion, 2021-22

Source: Learning Policy Institute

Wraparound Services

  • 60%

    Public schools that use a "community school" or "wraparound services" model, 2023-24 school year

  • 45%

    Public schools that use a "community school" or "wraparound services" model, 2022-23 school year

Source: School Pulse Panel

Undocumented Immigrants

  • 1,908,000

    First-generation immigrant students in the U.S. higher education system

  • 408,000

    Undocumented students enrolled in higher education

Source: Higher Ed Immigration Portal

Voter Issues

  • 80%

    Voters who believe that hiring quality teachers is very important for public officials to address

  • 27%

    Voters who believe that book banning/curriculum censorship is very important to address

Source: The Hunt Institute

PISA Scores

  • 34%

    U.S. students considered to be low performers on the 2022 PISA math test

  • 7%

    U.S. students considered to be high performers on the 2022 PISA math test

Source: PISA

Student Teacher Ratios

  • 15:1

    Average public school student-teacher ratio in the U.S. for the 2023-24 school year

  • 23:1

    Student-teacher ratio in Utah, the highest in the U.S.

Source: Public School Review

Advanced Math

  • 35%

    Schools with high enrollments of Black and Latino students offering calculus

  • 54%

    Schools with low enrollments of Black and Latino students offering calculus

Source: Civil Rights Data Collection

College Dropout Rates

  • 32.9%

    Undergraduates who do not complete their degree program

  • 35%

    Less income earned among dropouts compared to bachelor’s degree holders

Source: Education Data Initiative

Computer Science Courses

  • 57.5%

    High schools that offer foundational computer science courses

  • 5.8%

    High school students who are enrolled in those courses

Source: Code.org

Teacher Vacancies

  • 47%

    Public schools that were unable to fill a teaching position for physical sciences, 2021-22 school year

  • 26%

    Public schools that were unable to fill a teaching position for physical sciences, 2011-12 school year

Source: NCES

Role Models

  • 28%

    Young adults from lower-income households who said they had a role model with a successful career growing up

  • 84%

    Young adults from higher-income families who said they had a successful role model growing up

Source: Amazon-Gallup Poll

School Resource Officers

  • $2.62 billion

    Annual expenditures on school resource officers’ salaries and benefits (in 2023 dollars) nation-wide

  • $46.87

    Average expenditure per student on school resource officers

Source: Urban Institute

School Meals

  • $170.13

    Average yearly school meal debt per child in the U.S.

  • 1.54 million

    Students across the country whose families must pay for full-priced school meals they cannot afford

Source: Center for American Progress

NAEP Scores & Absenteeism

  • 45%

    4th grade reading NAEP score decline explained by changes in absenteeism

  • 27%

    4th grade math NAEP score decline explained by changes in absenteeism

Source: The White House

Higher Education

  • $30,000

    Average total income among U.S. adults with no postsecondary education

  • $75,000

    Average total income among U.S. adults with a bachelor's degree

Source: Gallup

School Supplies

  • $500

    Average amount public school teachers spend on classroom supplies

  • 25%

    Increase in the cost of school supplies in the U.S. from 2022 to 2023

Source: The 74

Parent Satisfaction

  • 80%

    Parents in the U.S. satisfied with their child's education

  • 42%

    Adults in the U.S. satisfied with the education system

Source: Gallup

Legacy Advantage

  • 37%

    Acceptance rate at selected elite colleges for legacy students

  • 9.5%

    Acceptance rate at the same schools for non-legacy students

Source: The New York Times

Learning Loss

  • 4.1

    Additional months of schooling needed for students grades 3-8 to catch up in reading

  • 4.5

    Additional months of schooling needed for students grades 3-8 to catch up in math

Source: NWEA

School Psychologists

  • 1,127

    Average students per school psychologist

  • 500

    Recommended students per school psychologist

Source: National Association of School Psychologists

Arming Teachers

  • 54%

    Teachers who believe teachers carrying firearms would make schools less safe

  • 20%

    Teachers who believe teacher-carry would make schools safer

Source: RAND

NAEP Scores, 13-year-olds

  • 85%

    13-year-olds who demonstrated skills in basic problem solving and math operations in 2012

  • 71%

    13-year-olds who demonstrated skills in basic problem solving and math operations in 2022

Source: National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)

Religion in School

  • 63%

    Democrats who believe public school teachers should not be able to lead students in prayer

  • 39%

    Republicans who believe public school teachers should not be able to lead students in prayer

Source: Pew Research Center

Partisan Views on Schools

  • 72%

    Democrats who believe K-12 schools are having a positive effect on the country

  • 61%

    Republicans who believe K-12 schools are having a negative effects on the country

Source: Pew Research Center

Teacher Salaries & Rent Prices

  • 15

    Cities where a one-bedroom rental is unaffordable for a new teacher with a bachelor's degree

  • 9

    Cities where a one-bedroom rental is unaffordable for a new teacher with a master's degree

Source: NCTQ

NAEP History Scores

  • 29%

    8th graders scoring below "basic" on NAEP U.S. history, 2014

  • 40%

    8th graders scoring below "basic" on NAEP U.S. history, 2022

Source: National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)

School Resource Officers

  • 36%

    Schools that are lower-income, predominantly Black (>80%) with a school resource officer, 2017-18

  • 5%

    Schools that are lower-income, predominantly White (>80%) with a school resource officer, 2017-18

Source: Urban Institute

Teacher Pension Costs

  • $21.8 billion

    Teacher pension costs in 2001

  • $63.7 billion

    Teacher pension costs in 2021, adjusted for inflation

Source: Equable Institute

Chronic Absenteeism

  • 8 million

    Students who were chronically absent pre-pandemic

  • 16 million

    Students who were chronically absent in spring 2022

Source: Attendance Works

Book Bans, 2021-22 School Year

  • 2,532

    Book bans during the 2021-22 school year

  • 1,648

    Unique book titles being banned

Source: Pen America

Who We Are

FutureEd is an independent, solution-oriented think tank at Georgetown University’s McCourt School of Public Policy that is committed to improving opportunities and outcomes for vulnerable students in the nation’s schools and colleges.

About Us
Highlighting

Post-Covid Recovery

How North Carolina’s Schools Are Staffing Their Pandemic Recovery

Read More about How North Carolina’s Schools Are Staffing Their Pandemic Recovery

How California’s Schools Are Spending Billions in Federal Pandemic Relief

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Progress in Spending Federal K-12 Covid Aid: State by State

Read More about Progress in Spending Federal K-12 Covid Aid: State by State

Deep Dives

FutureEd Reports

Comprehensive policy analysis of major issues facing schools and colleges

All Reports

Teacher Mindsets: How Educators’ Perspectives Shape Student Success

How teachers’ attitudes, beliefs, and classroom practices fortify students’ investment in learning

Changing the Narrative: The Push for New Equity Measures in Education

The movement to introduce new indicators of school performance

Leaning In: The New Power of Parents in Public Education

A profile of the changing parent landscape in public education

The Churn

The latest leadership changes in the education sector

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Scott Benson, who was previously at the University of North Carolina, is now at Cambiar Education.

February 2024

Andy Smith, who was previously the director of policy and advocacy at TNTP, is now the senior director of policy and advocacy at Chiefs for Change.

February 2024

Jorge Fanjul, who was previously the North American program director at the Centre for Public Impact, is the new executive director of Latinos for Education‘s Massachusetts region. Jacqueline Monterroso also joins the organization as the Massachusetts director of policy and advocacy.

February 2024

From the field

Research Notes

Latest education policy research

Research Notes: “Short Bursts” of High-Impact Tutoring Led to Big Reading Gains

Results of a randomized controlled trial of an early reading tutoring program designed to be affordable at scale

Research Notes: A Talk Tracker Encourages Students to Verbalize Their Thinking

The effects of TalkMeter, a computer program that tracked the dialogue and speaking times between CueMath tutors and students

Highlighting

Chronic Absenteeism

Attendance Playbook: Smart Solutions for Reducing Student Absenteeism Post-Pandemic

Read More about Attendance Playbook: Smart Solutions for Reducing Student Absenteeism Post-Pandemic

Tracking State Trends in Chronic Absenteeism

Read More about Tracking State Trends in Chronic Absenteeism

State Strategies for Fighting Chronic Student Absenteeism

Read More about State Strategies for Fighting Chronic Student Absenteeism

Next Generation Ideas

The Future of American Education

Resetting the agenda for the nation's schools and colleges

When School Reform Is Not Enough

The Promise and Peril of New Teaching Technologies

In Defense of College Degrees and New Post-Secondary Pathways

A New Strategy for Driving Educational Equity

An Equity Agenda for Higher Education

The Case for a New School Finance Reform Agenda

Highlighting

Standards & Testing

Unfinished Agenda: The Future of Standards-Based School Reform

Read More about Unfinished Agenda: The Future of Standards-Based School Reform

Q&A: Allensworth on Grades Versus Tests in College Admissions

Read More about Q&A: Allensworth on Grades Versus Tests in College Admissions

What the New PISA Results Really Say About U.S. Schools

Read More about What the New PISA Results Really Say About U.S. Schools

Latest Episodes

FutureU Podcast

Jeff Selingo and Michael Horn discuss what’s next for higher education

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FutureU Podcast Ep. 153: “College Unbound” from the Traditional Model

Features College Unbound Co-founder and President Adam Bush, and Jose Rodriguez, College Unbound’s assistant vice president for community and belonging

FutureU Podcast Ep. 151: Student Success 2.0

Features Carrie Bartek from Wake Technical Community College and Randi Harris from Portland State University