Suspensions

Examining Teacher Use of Punishments and Student Outcomes

Since early 1990s, zero-tolerance discipline policies have led schools to rely more heavily…

New Evidence on Racial Disparities in School Discipline

Racial and ethnic disparities in school suspensions have been well documented in education…

In Schools, Black Girls Confront Both Racial and Gender Bias

As schools grapple with longstanding racial inequities brought into sharp focus by recent cases of…

Bias in the Air: Teachers’ Implicit Racial Attitudes

Implicit bias involves prejudicial behaviors or judgments that take place outside of conscious awareness. Subsequently,…

The Effects of New Orleans School Reforms on Discipline

One criticism of New Orleans’ shift to a state-run school school district in the wake…

How School Suspensions Affect Student Achievement

The Philadelphia School District’s decision in 2012 to end suspensions for minor infractions provided fertile…